edit to add:
If you're using the same USB device to test all the ports, then this wouldn't be an issue. But if not, then something else to check first...before doing any more hardware checking...I'm assuming your rear integrated USB ports work...as you specified only front USB ports in the problem. Verify that you have enabled BOTH USB1.x and USB2.x settings in a BIOS Settings sub-menu. They might be under a category labeled "Integrated Peripherals" or similar. This is in case for example you were trying to use 2.x devices on the front ports and only had 1.x enabled but tested with 1.x devices on the rear ports.
Actually it would help to know what motherboard you have.
If you did in fact plug the USB cable into the correct USB connector block on the motherboard, then I suggest the next thing to do is check the motherboard manual
to verify if the motherboard USB connector block pins match-up with the case manufacturer's connector label assignments (e.g. polarity, signal lines vs. +5 and ground, etc). In the past I've run across several cases where the USB connector provided by the case manufacturer was not compatible
with the motherboard connector block and I've had to re-wire the USB cable connector. I believe the cheaper the case, the more likely such errors. However, even the "good" case manufacturers can make a mistake on the manufacturing line or in parts ordering. If you don't already have one you can usually get a copy of the motherboard manual from the manufacturer's website.
I also suggest when doing your testing, do not plug expensive devices into any suspect USB ports. Use something relatively cheap yet still generally reliable such as a low-capacity memory stick. And if possible, while doing the debugging match the USB device to the USB port version (e.g. USB2.x to USB2.x, and USB1.x to USB1.x). Mixing USB versions adds another variable into the testing as not all USB2.x ports are compatible with all
1.x devices and vice-versa.
Other potential causes can include mislabeled connectors or you've incorrectly plugged-in the connector(s) (e.g. connector offset from the pins, wrong wire connected to the wrong pin, etc). I've seen instances where both
of these have happened whether each wire has an individual connector or the wires are grouped into a multi-pin connector. Manufacturing errors do occur and even experienced users make mistakes.
edit to add:
apologies for the multiple edits. I take meds for pain and at the moment also very sleep deprived.